Restrictions will affect the operation of shops, cinemas, zoos, and other public places.
All shops other than those selling vital goods will be closed until at least January 19, Prime Minister Mark Rutte said in a televised speech.
This is the first time the country has taken such measures since the beginning of the pandemic.
Public places such as zoos, amusement parks, and movie theaters will also close, Rutte said. At the same time, supermarkets and pharmacies will continue to work.
The new measures will complement the partial quarantine restrictions imposed in mid-October when bars and restaurants were forced to shut down.
The pandemic has claimed the lives of more than 10 thousand residents of the Netherlands.