Scientists at Lancaster University and Imperial College London in the UK have discovered a violation of one of the fundamental laws of physics — the conservation of electric charge. However, this violation occurs under extremely exotic conditions: in the singularity of a black hole, where the so-called axion bomb falls-a special combination of electromagnetic and axion fields. The researchers published their findings in the German scientific journal Annalen der Physik. Briefly about the scientific work is described in a press release on Phys.org.
According to the authors of the article, a non-trivial topological space, including that present in the center of a black hole, can violate the conservation of charge, that is, the charge can arise out of nowhere or be destroyed. However, it also depends on the nature of the charge itself, that is, the configuration of the electromagnetic field. To demonstrate such a violation, the scientists added a term to the Maxwell equations — the axionic one. Axions are hypothetical, yet undiscovered particles whose existence is necessary to preserve CP-invariance. They are also candidate particles of dark matter.
According to the mathematical construction developed by scientists, an axion field or a topological axion can exist in a vacuum, which differs from the standard axion by interesting physical properties related to the topology of space. When approaching from the singularity, the axion field and the associated electromagnetic field begin to “shrink” and, eventually, disappears into the singularity, taking the charge with it.
At the same time, the scientists emphasize that although they have demonstrated that, in a general sense, anything can happen in a singularity, the space-time surrounding the singularity obeys ordinary physical laws that limit the loopholes in which they can be violated. The field configuration itself cannot arise naturally, but a hypothetical advanced civilization can still correct the global charge of the Universe if it predicts the onset of a temporary singularity, such as an evaporating black hole.