Scientists have figured out how to manage 4 million qubits for a quantum computer.
Quantum computers use qubits to store information and make primitive computational modules that can store both zero and one at the same time.
Thanks to this, quantum computers can process large amounts of information many times faster than ordinary computers – even if they are supercomputers with enormous computing power.
The problem of controlling the state of millions of qubits is one of the biggest obstacles to creating full-fledged universal quantum computers. We have been thinking about solving this problem for many years and therefore were extremely pleased that we were able to take a big step towards this goal.
Andrew Dzurak, professor at the University of New South Wales
To work with each qubit, individual emitters and receivers of microwave radiation are needed, which read and change the quantum state of memory cells. They take up a lot of space and interfere with the operation of neighboring qubits, which limits their maximum number and density.
In order to get around this difficulty, you can use magnetic fields and force qubits to interact with them: so, theoretically, it will be possible to control millions of quantum memory cells, but for this it is necessary to learn how to concentrate this field in separate regions of the chip.
This can be done by creating a magnetic field not directly, but using a special device, which scientists call a “three-dimensional dielectric resonator.” It is a crystal of potassium, thallium and oxygen that absorbs incoming microwave pulses and turns them into focused oscillations of the magnetic field.
With it, you can control four million qubits. This number of cells should be enough to create a universal computing machine, which itself will correct errors in operation.