The Russian launch vehicle of the super heavy class, designed for flights to the Moon, can be equipped with stages returned to Earth for reuse, follows from the materials of Roscosmos, posted on the state procurement website.
“Within the framework of the technical project, options for creating a super-heavy – class space rocket complex with a launch vehicle (LV) based on the rocket fuel components oxygen and methane, including options for saving and reusing the rocket blocks of the first stage of the LV, should be worked out,” the materials say.
In December 2020, it became known from the publication of the General Director of Roscosmos Dmitry Rogozin on Facebook that the project of the super heavy rocket “Yenisei” would be revised. Instead of oxygen-kerosene engines, it will use oxygen-methane engines, which is why the first Russian manned missions to the Moon will be conducted using the “Angara” family of rockets until 2032, although the decree of Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the launch of the first super heavy rocket in 2028.
In January 2021, the Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences for space recommended postponing the creation of a super heavy rocket, as it is necessary to use breakthrough, promising, and economically justified technologies.
In May, Dmitry Baranov, General Director of the Progress Rocket and Space Center, said that a decision on the creation of the Yenisei and its appearance could be made no earlier than the end of 2021. At the same time, the executive director for advanced programs and science of Roscosmos, Alexander Bloshenko, said that the creation of the rocket would require 800 billion rubles. Reusability is one of the main trends in space rocket engineering, designed primarily to reduce the cost of launching. Russia has no reusable space rockets yet, but they are being developed. In the United States, SpaceX currently uses reusable stages in its Falcon rocket, as well as Blue Origin in the New Shepard rocket. Rocket Lab is also going to reuse the first stages of the Electron rocket. Reusable rockets are also used in China and Europe.