The blood of the Neanderthals turned out to be more similar to the blood of modern humans than previously thought. Also, genetic analysis showed that closely related relationships affected their ability to survive. The research results are published by PLOS ONE.
A new analysis of the genomes of three representatives of Homo neanderthalensis showed that they also had blood types. Prior to that, scientists only confirmed that they had only the “O” blood group. The new study also proved the existence of groups “A” and “B”.
Analysis of the genomes of Neanderthals has helped researchers speculate why Neaderthals became extinct. Thus, in the archaic genomes of Homo neanderthalensis, a large number of common alleles were found, indicating a small genetic diversity. For example, scientists have found a large number of common alleles in genomes. This suggests that the Neanderthals and Denisovans had low genetic diversity. Most likely it is associated with inbreeding – a form of homogamy, when closely related forms are crossed within the same population of organisms.
For example, the genetics of Neanderthals could lead to frequent cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn – a disease resulting from the incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the child for certain antigens. In this disease, the mother’s immune system attacks the blood cells of her fetus.